A Critical Consideration of Mineral Metabolism

Vitamins and Hormones Influence Balance of Bodily Processes

Dr. M. Francis Wielage and Ada M. Wielage Discuss Factors Involved in Metabolic Disturbances in



                According to our Catalyzer-Vitamin-Hormone theory, the vitamins will always play an important role. It must be realized that for normal action, the body temperature should be normal. Ad 102o degrees this catalytic action is increased and the value of fever, diathermia and local hot application lies in the increased catalytic action of body ferments.

The supplementation of vitamins and the consequent lack of results is most noticeable in patients with hypothermia.

Another feature which needs to be taken into consideration is the following:

We know that to obtain the color, green, we must use yellow and blue. By using just yellow, or just blue, we will never get the desired results. So it is with vitamins. If vitamins D stood for blue and Vitamin A for yellow, to obtain green we would have to use Vitamins A and D. and if there is a variety of abnormalities, it behooves us to strike a harmonious normal. To look for results, by empirically using one vitamin, is look for something that may not exist.

In 1931, at the International Dental Congress, we presented this Catalyzer-Vitamin-Hormone theory to the Profession.

Vitamin C was placed opposite the Adrenal Medulla. In recent years, it has been found that the Adrenal gland is rich in Vitamin C.

Under the Adrenal Cortex, we placed “Possible Storehouse for Choline.” In 1934, there appeared a book, “The Chemistry of the Hormones,” by Harrow and Sherwin (18). It said:

“The Presence of Choline in CorticoAdrenal Extract”

“Eagle points out that considerable quantities of a highly undesirable impurity, choline, may be found in extracts prepared by the Swingle and Pfiffner method, thought the extracts prepared according to the directions of Gollman and Firor are free from this base. Eagle is of the opinion that some of the properties attributed to the cortical extract (such as the influence on carbohydrate and respiratory metabolism) may be due to the presence of choline.”

Though the presence of choline is acknowledged, it is considered a “highly undesirable impurity.” We are of the opinion that its presence is a physiological requirement.

The places for the four to-be-discovered vitamins was not only given, but from the corresponding action of the endocrine glands, an indication was provided of the endocrine glands, an indication was provided as to thei9r to-be-expected functional characteristics.

If the disturbance is in the direction of Adynamia, it will lead to a state of para-sympathetic dominance with the following clinical manifestations: contracted pupil; profuse, watery saliva; decreased pulse rate; lowered systolic pressure; underfunctioning of the sweat glands; constipation; lowered temperature; and a pale color of the cartilaginous portion of the nasal septum.

This of necessity causes a deviation of the acid-base balance producing a degree of alkaloemia, and is manifested by a straw-yellow serum; soft clot; decreased Brownian movement; flocculation or mineralization of the storehouse. When this serum is shaken with powdered beefbone, a varied degree of depositing power is observed.

Adynamia brings in its wake, a peculiar digestive tract syndrome in time, namely, paradentosis, peptic or duodenal ulcer, preceded by a gastric hyperacidity, “chronic appendix,” coelic stagnation, diseases of the male and female generative organs, diseases of the central nervous system, accompanied by varied degrees of Hypo-chlorhydria. Eventually, this leads to an Achloryhdria, with the manifestations of frontal headache caused by a gastric dyspepsia; anemias and some blood discracias.

Add to this a low sugar tolerance plus chronic irritation and the field is ripe for the appearance of cancer.

























Increases appetite. Promotesdigestion. Promotes growthby stimulating metabolic

process. Protects body from

nervous disease. Increases

quality and quantity of milk

during lactation.




Pituary glycosuria.Increased B.M.R.Decreased CH, tolerance.

Glycosuria and byperly-


Intestinal spasticity.

Nervousness and mental


Temperature normal.

Pulse rapid.




Tendency to masculinity infemale. Increased virilityin male. Acromegaly.

Osteoblasts become

Hypersensitive. Torso

Longer than extremities.

Extra large feet and hands.

Prognathism. Bones short

and thick. Gonads large

and well developed.

Temperamental. Talkative.

Bright mentality. Sex

activity increased; pulse,

temperature and blood

pressure normal. Increased

elimination of N and Ph.

Retention of Ca and Mg.

Fresh fruits and vegetables,whole cereals, yeast, wheatgerm. B1B2 Permits timely eruptionOf temporary and per-manent teeth. Regula-

tory of teeth in shape

and position.

Impairment of appetite anddigestion. Loss in weight.Loss of vigor. Constipation,

emaciation, subnormal

temperature, low blood

sugar. Enlargement of ad-

renals. Increase in size and

weight of thymus, pancreas,

testis, ovaries, spleen, heart,

liver, kidneys, stomach,

thyroid and brain.

Results of absence Beri-beri

peripheral and other forms

of neuritis atrophy of lym-

phoid tissue.


Pituitary obesity. De-creased B.M.R. IncreasedCH. Tolerance. No hyper-

glycemia. Girdle and

mammary obesity. Cons-

tipation. Dull mentality.

Temperature subnormal.

Pulse slow. Allows pyor-

rhea to become existant,

retention of temporary




Infantilism (Loraine type)delayed onset of puberty.Defective growth except

long bones. Gonad dys-

function. Amenorrhea or

metrorrhagia. Average

mentality. Sterility. Im-

potence. Subnormal. Tem-

perature. Slow pulse.

Teeth are oval small and

crowded. Caries.

Promotes tissue formation.Increases blood platelets.Acts on regulating substance.

Promotes growth and well

being. Promotes appetite

and digestion. Prevents in-

fection of eyes, sinuses, air

passages and lungs.



High B.M.R. Tachycardia.Tremor. Loss of weight.Nervous irritability. Moist

skin. Slender long bones.

Toxic goiter.

Teeth are pearly gliste-

ning small, regular, clean




Extreme hypercalcemia.Demineralization of ske-leton.  


Produces hyperacidity.Overstimulates para-sympathetic.

Changes nondiffusible

To diffusible calcium.

Controls and regulates

mineral metabolism.

Specific agent against


Butter (cream), green leavesand vegetables, egg yolk,liver and organs. Cod liver

oil, endoderm.

A Controls Ca Metabolism N N Control P2 Metabolism. D Butter (cream), eggYolk, fish oils, and liveroil.


Loss of appetite retardationof growth and development.Physical weakness. Suscep-

tibility to diseases of the eye

(nyctalopia, xerosis, corneal

ulcers), ears (otitis media),

kidneys (renal calculi), di-

seases involving air passages

lungs, skin and bladder. In-

fluences reproduction by

failure of ovulation. Anemia.

Excessive growth of lym-

phoid tissue results of ab-

sence Xerothalmia, cessation

of growth. Pus in ears, sinu-

ses, glands at tongue base.







Low B.M.R. Slow pulse.Hypotension. Mental andphysical sluggishness.

Obesity. Dry skin and

hair. Short stubby bones.

Brittle nails. Cold extre-



Irregular delayed erratic

dentition, retention of

Temporary teeth.













Tetany, eclampsia. Para-lysis Agitans. Epilepsy,spasmophylia. Muscular

dystrophies. Rapid decay

in children’s teeth. Enamel

defects on incisors.






Mobilizes cholesterol with

possible relation to acti-

vated ergosterol store-

house of choline?







Muscular weakness.Lack of calcium absi-milation.

Irritability of nervous

system increased.

Amenorrhea and dys-


Depression before


Headache after mens-


+ Pyloric spasm.Virility.Teeth well developed yel-

lowish. Premature erup-


+ N Controls Na metabolism.Hydration and dehydration. N
Tomato, green, vegetables,Raw citrus fruits.Mesoderm. C Teeth resist decay. N Interferes with Ca assimi-lation. Ulcers? Cancer/
Changes in disposition. Capricious appetite. Loss inweight. Physical weakness.

Shortness of breath. Rapid

respiration. Congestion of

internal organs. Tendency to

hemorrhage. Reduced he-

myoglobin. Decrease in sec-

retion, increase in weight

of adrenals. Decrease in

weight of spleen, liver, sto-

mach and intestines. Friabi-

lity of bones. Necrosis of

pulp of teeth. Swelling and

redness of gums.



Pigmentation in addi-son’s disease.Asythenia. Cardiac weak-

ness. Digestive distur-


Dentition delayed.















Controls carbohydrates








+ Early, maturity. Preco-cious sex development.Accompanies pyorrhea. + Diabetes, ulcers, cancer?
Meat, fish, egg yolk, cereal,green vegetables, wheatgerm. E Regularity of teeth inshape and position. N +
Sterility in male. Fatal deathsDuring period of gestation. Lateral incisors are al-ways distorted. N Cooperates with thyroid,anterior, pituitary, adrenalcortex. Antagonizes thy-


Chart 2

Catalyzer-Vitamin-Hormone Theory, expressing relationship of Vitamins and Hormones.


Paradentosis Has New Significance

Here, then, is evidence that in the extension of plate, the first appearance I the oral cavity of paradentosis may lead to the later appearance of cancer. In other words, paradentosis will have a new significance and becomes of importance in cancer prophylaxis.

The first indication of paradentosis calls for a systemic change in the sympathetic direction with an adjustment of the mineral picture to normal, by whatever means at our command. Sugar tolerance must be raised, and Vitamins B will play an important role.

Chronic irritation should now be avoided. We have yet to see cancer patient who did not have paradentosis, or was not edentulous on account of paradentosis.

The Jarvis Group (11) recognizes a desired change in type of food intake.

Whereas in dynamia, the intake of chlorophyll and iodine is advisable, in adynamia, salt intake is increased, chlorophyll intake is diminished, volumetric HCI N/10 by mouth, if necessary, and catabolic glandular products, if indicated.

Where dynamia is predominant, they advise the partaking of two sun-ripened food (acid-ash).

In adynamia, it is advised to reverse the intake. Results obtained point to an iodine-chlorine balance.

The conclusion has been reached that refined carbohydrates are not well tolerated by the human body. When the nasal septum appears red and a muco-purulent discharge becomes manifested, it is taken that the patient has overstepped his sugar tolerance. As increased sugar intake drives out the phosphorus through the kidney, a disturbance of the calcium phosphorus balance is brought about with again the consequential change in the Loeb ionic co-efficient.

Of interest in this work is the phenomenon of hydration and dehydration. The latest information finds these processes directly to endocrine balance. Whereas adrenalin seems to loosen the glycogen in the liver and allows hydration through Vitamin B, thereby increasing the bloodsugar, it is also a well-known fact that capillary contraction is produced by the action of adrenalin. Dehydration sets in when Adrenal medullary secretion is stimulated. A shift in blood pH towards the acid side, or increased dynamia, will start the process of dehydration.

Adrenal medullary secretion is antagonistic to the secretion of the Islands of Langerhans.

Of interest is the fact that insulin procedures a dilation of capillary network and starts the process of hydration. The Adrenal cortex becomes here of importance inasmuch as it regulates Na metabolism and works in conjunction with the Islet’s secretion to hold water in the body.

Another influential factor which has been over-looked in the behavior studies for calcium and phosphorus and in total calcium determination is sex.

Mary Putnam Jacoby, in 1876, advanced the so called Menstrual Wave theory. The metabolic processes in woman present a distinct rhythm, which gains highest intensity just before menstruation sets in, to start again from the lowest point.

The changes in endocrine balance pertaining to the 28-day period of woman is of particular interest in its relation to calcium behavior. (Crossen, “Diseases of Women,” page 910, chart (16).)

Theelin counteracts the thyroid function, diminishing the urinary calcium output and raising the level of serum calcium. The urinary phosphorus output is increased. This is of interest on account of the recent reports of the successful use of theelin in hemorrhage. (Chart 4).

When the pro-follicle matures and ovulation takes place, progestin of the Corpus Luteum sustains the action of theelin in depressing thyroid function. During this period there is evidence of mental depression caused by a Hypothyroidia. During this period, the serum calcium is elevated above normal. A normal serum calcium, therefore, at this time should be considered abnormal. When no conception has taken place and the ovum dies, the need for a raised serum calcium is eliminated. The secretion of theelin and progestin drops suddenly when menstruation starts, thereby increasing thyroid function with the subsequent elimination of calcium. We anticipate, therefore, a low serum calcium, normally right after menstruation.

It is our experience that a normal reading for serum calcium is obtained around ten days after the finish of the menstrual period.

Former determinations without respect to this mineral wave in woman have given low, normal and high readings with no apparent relation.

If the serum calcium at the above mentioned period is low, the premenstrual period may show a normal serum calcium reading. During menstruation and increased thyroid function, the serum calcium falls below normal and Status calcifames becomes manifest with the ever present headache.

There are indications that certain male patients, of the blue-eyed, blond type, with periodic headaches, will have to be considered from this angle and studies for calcium should be made between the manifestations of headaches.

This rhythmic change in serum calcium of woman must bring about a change in Loeb’s ionic coefficient and mineral metabolism studies for the control of active caries in female patients takes on an entirely different aspect.

Failure on the part of some investigators to notice a relation between calcium and phosphorus metabolism findings and active caries (an expression too often found in current research literature), is no doubt due to lack of understanding of what takes place during the 28-day period in woman. The conclusions reached are, therefore, of no value.

The relation of endocrine function and mineral behavior is beautifully manifested and an understanding of endocrine function becomes absolutely necessary.

It is also becomes apparent that any approach to the solution of oral problems, will in no small measure depend on the frequency of mineral studies to check and control mineral supplementation.

The life of a human being is extended from birth to death in time. One determination may give us information as to the status of the mineral balance, but the direction as far as improvement or non-improvement is concerned, can only be obtained by a series of tests.

The foregoing immediately throws light on the relation of preventive dental medicine towards the patient as far as his life period is concerned.

Chart 6 shows this relation.

It is of the utmost importance, as far as the control of caries is concerned, that attention be paid to growth periods (sixth year, twelfth year, puberty, adolescence, marriage, pregnancy, lactating period, etc.).

The importance to the school child, teacher and parents is incalculable. Coupled with this that many school teachers suffer from “Status Calcifames,” with resulting increased irritability, scientific supplementation will become a major school problem.

Another important feature of preventive dental medicine will be its application as a true health insurance. Those who are unable to hold down certain positions due to increased need of minerals which are not supplied in the diet, may well gain the satisfaction that scientific supplementation as to their need, will make them fit to continue in their positions.

Research findings definitely show a disturbed calcium metabolism in paradentosis. The serum calcium is usually elevated. The endocrine relation is that of a hypothyroidia. The hypothyroidia ultimately produces an adynamia or parasympathecotonia with its accompanying alkaloeemia. It is here that the relation becomes clear between active paradentosis and alkaloemia.

Preventive dental medicine deals with the scientific measurement of the mineral picture, correct supplementation to reestablish normalcy, and periodic studies to keep the patient in normal mineral balance, thereby preventing and arresting active caries and active paradentosis.


An attitude of doubt should be taken by the profession in regards to conclusions reached in mineral metabolism studies, until laboratory procedures have received the stamp of approval by an official committee of inquiry.

This will do much in preventing dental literature being clogged with more or less inaccurate data and conclusions in relation to the solving of the dental problems: active Caries and active Paradentosis.

Empirical supplementation of dicalcium phosphate and cod liver oil is advised against.

Attention is called to a new and more accurate formula expressing calcium-balance.

The presence of a rhythmic mineral wave in woman should be taken into consideration when mineral metabolism studies are made.

Loeb’s ionic coefficient is explained.


  1. Wielage & Wielage, M. Francis and Ada M.; “A new Concept of Dental Medicine,” Dental Digest, May, 1933.
  2. Grove & Grove, Carl T. and Carl J.; “The Biochemical Aspect of Dental Caries,” Dental Cosmos, pp.  1027-1036, Volume 76, No. 10, October, 1934.
  3. Page, Melvin E.; “Conservation of the Edentulous Alveolar Processes,” pp. 52-50, Journal of American Dental Association, Vol. 22, January, 1935.
  4. Kaushansky, L. I.; “The Etiology of So-called Alveolar Pyorrhea. Influence of Diet on Mineral Metabolism,” pp. 69-74, Dental Cosmos, Vol. 77, January, 1935.
  5. Bunting, Russell W.; “Bacteriological, Chemical and Nutritional Studies of Dental Caries by the Michigan Research Group,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. XIV, No. 2, April, 1934, pp. 97-105.
  6. Becks & Wainwright, H. and W. W.; “Human Saliva I Critical Discussion of Former Salivary Calcium Studies and Their Value in the Establishment of Normal Standards,” pp. 387-423, Journal of Dental Research, Vol. XIV, No. 5, October, 1934.
  7. Bigwood, M. E. J.; La Concentration En Ion Calcium Du Plasma Sanguin.”
  8. Price, Weston A.; “The Experimental Basis for a New Theory of Dental Caries With Chemical Procedures for Determining Immunity and Susceptibility,” pp. 1139-1156, Dental Cosmos, Vol. LXXIV, No. 12, December, 1932.
  9. Aub, J. C.; “Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism.” Harvey Lectures. 1928-29. P. 159; “A Study of the Bone Trabeculae as a Readily Available Reserve


The presence is observed of sodium-potassium balance, calcium-phosphorus balance, Chlor-iodine balance.

Sympathecotonia-Parasympathecotonia, dynamia, adynamia, their clinical manifestations and their relation to caries and paradentosis is brought out.

Cancer prophylaxis, the relation of paradentosis and cancer is explained.

Mineral metabolism studies and supplementation in their relation to the school child and teacher is stressed. Their relation to health insurance becomes clear.

Supply of Calcium,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1929, Vol. XLIX, p. 145; “The Effect of the Parathyroid Hormones,” Journal of Clinical Investigations. 1929, Vol. VII, p. 178; “The Effects of the Thyroid Hormone and Thyroid Disease,” ibid, p. 113.

  1. Wielage and Wielage, M. Francis and Ada M.; “Mineral Supplementation in Relation to Dentistry and a New Formula Expressing Ca-Balance,” Florida Dental Journal, Vol. 5, No. 6, June, 1934.
  2. Jarvis Study Group; “Chloor-iodine Balance 609.
  3. Jarvis, D.; “Intranasal Mucous Membrane Color Changes as a Guide to the Status of the Sympathetic-Parasympathetic System, “Jarvis Study Group, pp. 560-666.
  4. Williams, J. W.: Mary Putnam Jacoby. “Obstetrics,” p. 90, D. Appleby and Co., New York.
  5. Wielage and Wielage, M. Francis and Ada M.; “Status Calcifames,” Journal of Dental Research, Vol. XII, No. 1, February, 1932.
  6. Wielage, Ada M.; Jarvis Study Group, p. 507.
  7. Crossen, Harry Sturgeon; “Diseases of Women,” published by C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1922, p. 910.
  8. Kanner-Matthieu, O.J. and Chancogne; Dosages, photometriques du pH du sang avec le Photometre Vernes, Brique, Yvonne. Archives de l’Institut Prphylactique Tome IV No. 4. Quarantine Trimestre, 1932. (Masson et Cie) Paris, France; p. 462-486.
  9. Harrow, Benjamin, Ph.D., and Sherwin, Carl P., D.Sc., M.D. Dr. P. H. “The Chemistry of the Hormones,” published by The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1934, p. 145.